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Cattle Breeds Originating in the United States

All of the cattle breeds that originated in America relied upon founding stock from breeds around the world such as Angus cattle, Bonsmara, Brangus, Caracu, Frankeston, Han-u, Hereford, Limousin, Mocho Nacional, Murray Grey, Romosinuano, Tabapuan, Wagyu and the Wangus.

Africangus is a breed of beef cattle that originated in the USA in the 1950s. This breed is a composite of 30% Africander and 70% Aberdeen Angus.

Aleutian wild
Aleutian wild cattle are feral wild cattle found on the Alaskan Aleutian Islands. Several attempts have been made to round up these cattle for ranching, but in 1985 to 1986 the cattle on the Shumagin Islands were eliminated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. However, they still remained on Umnak Island and Chirikof Islands.

The American is a breed of cattle originating in the United States and known for its heritage as an American Bison hybrid. It was developed in the 1950s by a New Mexico rancher looking for beef cattle which could survive on poor fodder in the arid Southwest. Today the American is one of only a few pure breeds with any known Bison genetics, with the more well-known breed being the Beefalo. American cattle vary in appearance, although nearly all display the floppy Brahman ears, slight humps, and with many having horns.

American White Park
The American White Park is a large, mostly polled, white breed of cattle. The females have an average weight of around 1000 pounds or 453 kilograms, while the males have an average weight between 1700 to 1800 pounds or 770 to 815 kilograms.

Amerifax is a breed of beef cattle that was developed in the United States in the 1970s. The breed is a combination of about 63% Angus and 37% Beef Friesian.

The Barzona are a breed of beef cattle that were developed in the United States. They are a combination of Africander, Hereford, Beef Shorthorn and Angus in approximately equal proportions. They have been bred to be especially hardy and have good heat, insect and disease tolerance. The Barzona was developed in Arizona in the early 20th Century.

Beefalo are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle, Bos taurus, and the American bison, Bison bison which is generally called buffalo in the United States. The breed was created to combine the characteristics of both animals for beef production. Accidental crosses were noticed as far back as 1749 in the southern English colonies of North America and cattle and buffalo were first intentionally crossbred during the mid 19th century. There are only four genetically unmixed American bison herds left, and only one that is also free of brucellosis, the Wind Cave Bison Herd which roams Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota.

Beefmaster is a breed of beef cattle that was developed in the early 1930s by Tom Lasater from the crossing of Hereford and Shorthorn cattle with Brahman stock. The exact mixture of the foundation cattle is unknown, but is thought to be about 25% Hereford, 25% Shorthorn and 50% Brahman. It was the second new breed of cattle registered in the United States and the original intent was to produce cattle that could be produced economically in the difficult environment of South Texas. The cattle were selected by using the Six Essentials – weight, conformation, milking ability, fertility, hardiness and disposition. Though there are no standards for color, most are red, however others are paint, dun, roan, white, brown, tan, or black.

The Braford is a cross between a Hereford bull and a Brahman cow. Conversely, it can also be a cross between a Brahman bull and a Hereford cow. The make up of the Braford is 37% Brahman and 63% Hereford. Even though a true Braford meets those standards, 50% Brahman and 50% Hereford cross are known as F1 Brafords or F1 Baldies. They carry the characteristics of both parents. The Braford is red like a Hereford with white underbelly, head, and feet. It is stockier than a Hereford, though, getting its stockiness from the Brahman. The Braford is primarily used for beef, but sometimes used for rodeo. Brafords were developed both in Australia in 1946 and in Florida in 1947.

A Brangus is a hardy and popular breed of beef cattle, being a cross between an Angus and a Brahman. An animal eligible for registration as a Brangus cattle must be 63% Angus and 37% Brahman. The early breeders came from 16 states and Canada to meet in Vinita, Oklahoma, on July 2, 1949, where they organized the American Brangus Breeders Association. Now the permanent association headquarters is in San Antonio, Texas and there are members in nearly every American state, Canada, Mexico, Australia, Central America, Argentina, and Zimbabwe. Brangus breed was developed to the superior traits of Angus and Brahman cattle resulting in a breed which unites the traits of two highly successful parent breeds.

The BueLingo breed of beef cattle was developed in Ransom County, North Dakota, on the Bueling Ranch, by Russell Bueling and R. B. Danielson of the Animal Science Department of the North Dakota State University at Fargo. It is similar in appearance to the Dutch Belted breed of dairy cattle. BueLingo cattle usually have a white belt around the stomach area.

Florida Cracker
The Florida Cracker is a breed of cattle developed in the state of Florida, and named for the Florida Cracker culture in which it was raised. Also known as the Florida Scrub or simply as the Cracker cow, these cattle are one of the criollo-type breeds originally brought to the Southern U.S. by the Spanish Conquistadors. The breed is very closely related to the Pineywoods cattle breed, but purebred Crackers have not been crossbred with any English breeds like the Pineywoods has in the past. Other related breeds include the Corriente and Texas Longhorn. Florida Crackers are one of the oldest and rarest breeds of cattle in United States, descended from Spanish stock imported to the continent in the 16th century. Florida Crackers are a small, horned breed that quickly adapted to the Florida landscape and have long been prized for their resistance to parasites and other hardy traits. They weigh generally under 900 pounds or 400 kilograms with horns on both cows and bulls and are of various colors.

The Hybridmaster is a breed of cattle with the genetic makeup of approximately 50% Angus, 25% Brown Swiss, 6.25% Brahman, 6.25% Simmental, 6.25% Gaur, and 6.25% Bison. Developed by Joe Grose in Oklahoma, Hybridmasters have been selected for 35 years on the following four traits - milk, fertility, longevity and growth. This breed was designed to produce large amounts of beef, as well as milk.

Milking Devon
The Milking Devon is a breed of cattle from the United States originally derived from British North Devon cattle brought to North America in the 17th century. The two strains have since diverged significantly with the breed often being called the American Milking Devon to differentiate it from its British cousin. Modern North Devons have been bred to be used almost exclusively for beef production, while Milking Devons are a multi-purpose animal akin to the stock which first took the transatlantic journey. Despite their name, they are also suited to meat production and to work as draft animals much as oxen are used. Considered to be one of the oldest and purest breeds of American cattle in existence, Milking Devons are also exceedingly rare.

Miniature Texas Longhorn
Miniature Texas Longhorns are purebred, registered Texas Longhorns that have been downsized by breeding the smallest Texas Longhorns together over time. Just like the full-sized Texas Longhorns, the miniature version comes in many different colors, coat patterns, horn sizes and styles. While Miniature Texas Longhorns are very small, the goal is to retain the characteristics and proportions of the larger breed. The TLBAA has recently approved a registry change that adds a separate designation for miniature Texas Longhorns. Since this registry change is so new, most Miniature Texas Longhorns are currently registered as Texas Longhorns within the standard registry. Breeders that wish to have their animals designated as Miniature Texas Longhorns must complete a reclassification application with the TLBAA and meet the minimum breed standards set for miniatures. Miniature Texas Longhorns are a fairly new idea so only a handful of farms and ranches in the country raise them; however, they are growing in popularity as word spreads about these new pint-sized longhorns.

Pineywoods cattle are an endangered breed of landrace heritage cattle that are descended from the original Spanish stock left along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of Florida, Georgia, Mississippi and Alabama by the Spanish explorers in the early 16th century. The cattle bred without human interference in the brushy wooded terrain of the Gulf Coast where they developed natural resistance to disease and were able to forage on marginal vegetation. Spanish explorers in the 1490s and 16th century brought this small and hardy breeding stock cattle to the new world which were able to survive the sea crossing. Some were released deliberately, trusting that their survival instincts would allow them to survive and reproduce. Thus months or years later a ready food source would be available. Pineywoods, Florida Crackers, Corriente, and Texas Longhorns all descended from the same original Spanish stock also known as Criollo cattle.

Randall cattle are a rare breed of cattle that originated in Sunderland, Vermont on the farm of Samuel Randall, and later with his son, Everett Randall. The Randall family kept a closed herd for over 80 years. Randalls are considered to be a landrace breed, descended from the local cattle common in New England in the nineteenth Century. In 1985 the Randall cattle were rescued from the Randall farm after Everett Randall had died. The animals were widely dispersed but soon began to disappear. Cynthia Creech, then living in Tennessee, stepped in to purchase most of the remaining animals to preserve the genetics from extinction. During the following years the breed was called various names but in the 1990s it was decided that they would be called Randall cattle and the Registry was set up with that name in 2001. Randalls have historically been used as a dairy breed, although they also possess meat and draft qualities. From fewer than 20 animals the breed population has increased to over 250 breeding females.

Santa Gertrudis
Santa Gertrudis cattle are a tropical beef breed of cattle developed in southern Texas on the famed King Ranch. They were named for the Spanish land grant where Captain Richard King originally established the King Ranch. This breed was officially recognized by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1940 and it became the first beef breed formed in the United States. The origin given by King Ranch is that it was formed by mating Brahman bulls with Beef Shorthorn cows, with the final composition being about 37% Brahman and 63% Shorthorn. In 1918 King Ranch purchased 52 bulls of 75% to 88% Bos indicus breeding to mate with 2500 pure-bred Shorthorn cows on the ranch. Santa Gertrudis cattle are known around the world for their ability to adapt to harsh climates. They were exported to Australia in 1951 and have been subjected to inspection and classification since then. The Santa Gertrudis Breeders Association of Australia was established in 1954 and the Santa Gertrudis Group Breed plan has operated in Australia since 1994. Anna Creek, Australia's largest cattle station raises Santa Gertrudis and there are 11,500 registered in the United States.

The Senepol breed of beef cattle were developed on the Caribbean Island of St. Croix from N'Dama cattle, imported in the late 19th century, by crossing with Red Poll cattle. The Senepol breed combines the N'Dama characteristics of heat tolerance and insect resistance with the docile nature, good meat, and high milk production of the Red Poll. They are polled, short haired, and colored red, black or brown. N'Dama cattle were imported to St. Croix from Senegal in the 19th century, being better suited to the climatic conditions than European breeds. One of the largest herds of over 250 head was owned by Henry C. Nelthropp at the Granard Estates. In 1918 Henry's son Bromley bought a Redpoll bull from Trinadad to improve the cows' milking ability and remove their long horns. More Redpoll bulls were used in the following years and the cattle were selected for their solid red color, natural polling and heat tolerance. These offspring were dispersed to four main herds on the island. The name Senepol was adopted in 1954 and a breed registry was established in the late 1960s. Aided by the United States Department of Agriculture the College of the Virgin Islands Extension Service began on farm performance testing in 1976. In 1977 22 cows were taken to the United States and the breed has since spread across the southern states. There are now more than 500 breeders with more than 14,000 registered cattle. They are also found in Australia, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Venezuela, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Zimbabwe and Brazil.

Texas Longhorn
Texas Longhorns are living legends of the American West. They are one of the toughest breeds of cattle, and the only breed to be molded by nature without any human interference. The Texas Longhorn is a breed of cattle known for its characteristic horns, which can extend to 7 feet or 2.1 meters tip to tip for steers and exceptional cows, and 36 to 80 inches or 0.91 to 2.0 meters tip to tip for bulls. Similar cattle were imported by Spanish colonists into other parts of North America, including California and Florida. Horns can have a slight upward turn at their tips or even triple twist. Texas Longhorns are known for their diverse coloring. A longhorn can be any color or mix of colors but dark red and white color mixes are the most dominate. Texas Longhorns with elite genetics can often fetch $40,000 or more at auction with the record of $170,000 in recent history for a cow. Due to their innate gentle disposition and intelligence, Texas Longhorns are increasingly being trained as riding steers. Registries for the breed include the Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America, the International Texas Longhorn Association, and the Cattlemen’s Texas Longhorn Registry. The Texas Longhorn is principally a beef animal and is known for its lean beef, which is lower in fat, cholesterol and calories than most beef. However, Longhorn cheese is often available from southwestern US grocers. The Texas Longhorn continues to represent the flavor and romance of the American Old West.


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